October 27, 2021

Science

The world of science and technology

The Genetic Code Sucks. Let’s Do Better

3 min read

Your genetic code is neat, but could be better!

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
Mukai et al. 2017 “Rewriting the Genetic Code” https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093247
Chin 2014 “Expanding and Reprogramming the Genetic Code of Cells and Animals”
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-biochem-060713-035737

The Genetic Code


Khan Academy “Intro to gene expression (central dogma)” https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-molecular-genetics/hs-rna-and-protein-synthesis/a/intro-to-gene-expression-central-dogma
el-Showk 2014 “The Language of DNA” https://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/accumulating-glitches/the_language_of_dna/
D’Onofrio and Abel 2014 “Redundancy of the genetic code enables translational pausing” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2014.00140/full
Spencer and Barral 2012 “Genetic code redundancy and its influence on the encoded polypeptides” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962081/
Duton 1983 “The significance of redundancy in the genetic code” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0022519383903880
Sleiman et al. 2021 “A third purine biosynthetic pathway encoded by aminoadenine-based viral DNA genomes” https://science.sciencemag.org/content/372/6541/516
Bain et al. 1992 “Ribosome-mediated incorporation of a non-standard amino acid into a peptide through expansion of the genetic code” https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Ribosome-mediated-incorporation-of-a-non-standard-a-Bain-Switzer/a011e43038dd85ec8da081e59d73a6f0d8bd5164
Zhang et al. 2017 “A semisynthetic organism engineered for the stable expansion of the genetic alphabet” https://www.pnas.org/content/114/6/1317
Hoshika et al. 2019 “Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks” https://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6429/884
Ernst et al. 2016 “Genetic code expansion in the mouse brain” https://www.nature.com/articles/nchembio.2160
Robertson et al. 2021 “Sense codon reassignment enables viral resistance and encoded polymer synthesis” https://science.sciencemag.org/content/372/6546/1057
Bethencourt 2009 “Virus stalls Genzyme plant” https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0809-681a
Jason Chin: "Reprogramming the genetic code" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gOImG7I5ek&t=520s
https://groups.molbiosci.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/Definitions/Def-D/degenerate_code.html#:~:text=Biology%20Glossary%20search%20by%20EverythingBio,by%20more%20than%20one%20codon.
https://www.britannica.com/science/amino-acid

IMAGES

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-woman-with-laughing-corgi-puppy-nature-background-gm1276788283-376188457
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/science-genetics-and-technology-concept—3d-rendering-of-virtual-dna-molecule-over-black-background-h-zbusytxxjibz13f2
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/laboratory-gm509610029-46561694
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/escherichia-coli-gm171590398-22294511
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/abstract-molecular-background-vp3exyppeim0ij5a3
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/microscopic-visualization-of-plasma-cells-rlbdn1vxxiwd79x8w
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/tech-abstract-data-background-gm1292297534-387145671
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aminoacids_table.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E._coli_Bacteria_(7316101966).jpg
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/3d-animation-with-plexus-effects-dots-and-lines-connected-with-extremely-shallow-depth-of-field-rnl1qudgokkolwgwt

Amino Acids


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_folding#/media/File:Protein_folding.png
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/dna-strand-is-assembled-from-different-elements-3d-animation-rh61ojwa7joe97ze8
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amino_Acids-wide.svg
https://www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/dolly-right-laboratory-tech-looking-for-coronavirus-vaccine-szul9mgvuk8f7nkm2
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/abstract-dna-code-background-gm531369959-55462516

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